During this period, however, awareness also grew that immigrant populations were here to stay. The 1924 quota system remained largely in place until the 1960s, when a new law established a new system. The main (return) migration flows were from Kenya, India, and Malaysia to the UK, from Northern Africa to France and Italy, from Congo to Belgium (although in smaller numbers), and from Indonesia to the Netherlands (Bade 2003). Moreover, it should be noted that these categories report only the main migration motive as captured in the official statistics. Minority populations in the main Western-European countries of immigration, 1950–1975 (thousands and last column % of total population), Source: Castles et al. European governments first recruited guest workers in Southern Europe, but quickly expanded towards countries at Europe’s borders. Their geographical location at the borders of Europe might explain this pattern, as these countries receive immigrants from neighbouring (non-European) countries and function as transit countries. 202-266-1900. In J. Raymer & F. Willekens (Eds.). When considering the top-10 countries of origin of non-EU nationals residing in the EU (Table. Before becoming an immigration country, Switzerland was an emigration country for a long An assessment of supply and demand-size theorizations of international student mobility. Migration Policy Institute Europe, established in Brussels in 2011, is a nonprofit, independent research institute that aims to provide a better understanding of migration in Europe and thus promote effective policymaking. Lastly, migration is often not limited to moving from Country A to Country B but may involve several successive destinations. Contrasting these cases, for which we have detailed information, suggests the diversity of migration flows and motives within Europe. This research was part of and supported by the European Research Council Starting Grant project (no. A migration system emerged whereby peripheral—especially Southern European—countries supplied workers to North-Western European countries. 2009; Verwiebe 2014). "We will continue and deepen our cooperation with countries of origin and transit to fight illegal migration and human trafficking and to ensure effective returns. Switzerland and Sweden were the first countries to invoke a migration stop, respectively, in 1970 and 1972. These controls on the entrance of foreigners went hand in hand with increased irregular migration (Bade, We first analyse general trends in migration towards Europe, based on new estimates of global migration flows by Abel and Sander (, Looking at the top-15 countries of origin of newly arrived immigrants in 2009 and 2012, we find large numbers of migrants from India and China, followed by Morocco and Pakistan (Table, In addition to the data on newly arriving immigrants (flow statistics), it is also relevant to know the main countries of origin of non-European migrants residing in the EU (stock statistics). Policies aiming to control and reduce migration, however, transformed rather than stopped migration. MPI’s International Program acts as a policy laboratory for developing innovative, evidence-based, and politically feasible solutions to worldwide migration policy challenges. Straddling our period demarcations we discuss these migrations patterns here, as they started in this period. K.1 EUV). During this third period, integration issues became a central policy concern (see Doomernik & Bruquetas in this volume). For Sweden, the most popular destinations for migrants are (besides the Nordic neighbours) English-speaking countries such as the UK and the USA (Mannheimer 2012). About 10,000 years ago t… The Italian government, for example, considered the labour migration programmes of North-Western European countries as a way to ‘get rid of the unemployed and to deprive the socialist and communist parties of potential voters’ (Hoerder 2002, 520). France - France - Immigration: Intermittently, at least since about 1830 and rather steadily from 1850, there has been a substantial flow of immigrant population into France. Nowok, B., Kupiszewska, D., & Poulain, M. (2006). We now consider the relative importance of migration flows as a share of countries’ total immigration and emigration figures. (Eds.). In sum, patterns of intra-EU migration are becoming increasingly diverse. The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the work’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if such material is not included in the work’s Creative Commons license and the respective action is not permitted by statutory regulation, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to duplicate, adapt, or reproduce the material. The reason why, and the development of recent interest in migration history both in popular history representations and in academic research are outlined in this paper. Furthermore, we examined the demographic characteristics of these migration flows as well as the characteristics of residing migrants across Europe using recent data. In the period after the Second World War, North-Western Europe was economically booming. European migrants in Ireland: Pathways to integration. In this context the paper seeks to make a contribution to the debate and discussions on the vital issue of migration both in Europe and beyond. Top-15 countries of origin of newly arrived non-EU migrants in the EU, 2009 and 2012, Note: Numbers refer to non-EU nationals whose previous place of residence was in a non-EU country and who had established their residence in a EU member state in the respective year, Top-10 countries of nationality of non-EU migrants residing in the European Union, 2012, Note: Numbers refer to non-EU nationals whose previous place of residence was in a non-EU country and who had established their residence in a EU member state for a period of at least 12 months. 202-266-1900, National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy, Language Access: Translation and Interpretation Policies and Practices, Latin America & The Caribbean Migration Portal, Illegal Immigration & Interior Enforcement, At the Starting Gate: The Incoming Biden Administration’s Immigration Plans, Future EU Policy Development on Immigration and Asylum: Understanding the Challenge, Facing 2020: Developing a New European Agenda for Immigration and Asylum Policy, Not Adding Up: The Fading Promise of Europe's Dublin System, How to Fix the Global Migration Management System. Vilar, J. In practice, these categories reflect migration motives as accepted in admission labels. Based on these numbers, we can discern several groups. Th… Verwiebe, R. (2014). © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. The first group consists of countries where intra-EU immigration and emigration comprises the largest share of migration movements. Social-structural differences for Italian, British, French and Polish nationals in the period between 1980 and 2002. According to Eurostat (2014a), in 2012, 32 % of migrants received a residence permit for family reasons, 23 % for work, 22 % for education, and 23 % for other reasons including asylum. Lange, T. (2013). The end of this third period might be the economic crisis, which so far seems to have affected mainly intra-European mobility patterns. (2008). The EU’s common currency is the euro. Migration from specific European countries to main European and other OECD destination countries, 2007–2011, Share of intra-European migrants in total emigration and immigration for selected European countries, 2008–2011 (%). 3.3. Native workers in this region became increasingly educated, and growing possibilities for social mobility enabled many of them to move up to white-collar work (Boyle et al. Moreover, student migration from outside the EU became increasingly important in some parts of the EU (ibid.). Eighty per cent of the total foreign stock in 1975 was concentrated in four countries, namely France, Germany, Switzerland, and the UK (Bonifazi 2008). The second period started with the oil crisis and ended with the fall of the Iron Curtain in the late 1980s. Intra-EU migration forms a substantial share of movements to and from the majority of the countries in Fig. of 1921 favored immigration from Northern and Western Europe and restricted. All rights reserved. Studying migration systems rather than focusing exclusively on one aspect of mobility is thus called for. The final section of this chapter presents figures on migration and migrants relying mainly on data from three research projects which aimed to create and improve harmonized and consistent migration data (Abel and Sander 2014; Raymer et al. Asylum applications to the EU-15 by destination country, 1970–1999 (thousands), Source: Hatton (2004, 10). Bilateral agreements were signed with Turkey (1961), Morocco (1963), Portugal (1964), Tunisia (1965), and Yugoslavia (1968). Nevertheless, migration flows were transformed rather than halted. 2006; Poulain et al. While most immigrant populations in European countries are dominated by other Europeans, many immigrants and their descendants have ancestral origins outside the continent. This continues to be an important issue in the discourse today. The treaty also introduces European citizenship giving Europeans the right to live and vote in elections in any EU country and launches European cooperation in foreign affairs security asylum and immigration. One in seven manual labourers in the UK and one in four industrial workers in Belgium, France, and Switzerland were of foreign origin in the mid-1970s (Page Moch 2003, not in table). part of European history comes quite naturally for migrations up to the early 20th century. By the end of this period, migration flows had started to divert towards former emigration countries in Southern Europe. This group includes Spain, Sweden, and the UK. The first period was characterized by labour migration and a favourable stance towards migration, covering the years from the beginning of the bilateral guest worker agreements until the oil crisis. Particularly significant within this group are Polish and Lithuanian migrants moving on to other European destinations. Immigrant migration dynamics model for the Netherlands. Furthermore, the local native population was no longer willing to take up unhealthy and poorly paid jobs in agriculture, cleaning, construction, and mining. Since the 1990s, however, migration motives have become increasingly diversified, including a growing number of young people migrating to attend higher education. The U.S.-EU Partnership U.S. Relations with the European Union U.S. cooperation with the EU is based on the Transatlantic Declaration of 1990 and the New Transatlantic Agenda (NTA) , adopted in 1995. Spain’s and the UK’s migration balances might reflect continuing migration from former colonies and historical links with various world regions which include, for example, language similarities. In addition, this distinction into different periods enables us to appreciate the current and ongoing political and public debates on migration in Europe. Quantifying global international migration flows. The Eastern Mediterranean route refers to the sea crossing from Turkey. UK data are census figures for 1951, 1961, and 1971 and estimates for 1975. Bonifazi, C. (2008). The emigration of immigrants, return vs onward migration: Evidence from Sweden. Occasionally, however, there were larger inflows of Eastern Europeans, following political crises such as from Hungary (1956–1957), Czechoslovakia (1968–1969), and Poland (1980–1981) (Castles et al. The brief highlights the need for stronger leadership and coordination on immigration policy—which still lacks a coherent, comprehensive approach beyond the Home Affairs domain—as well as for the allocation of resources, political and otherwise, to effect real change, both within the European Union and with third countries. From 2006 onwards, however, asylum applications rose due to the conflicts in Afghanistan, Iraq, and more recently, the Arab Spring. Lastly, the Iron Curtain severely limited East-West mobility. Non-EU nationals were evenly split between men and women (ibid.). MPI Europe, in a research initiative that began in January 2014, is focusing on addressing the challenges confronting the EU asylum system and identifying practical ideas for the immediate and longer term to strengthen the Common European Asylum System consistent with the European Union’s interests, values, and obligations. Industrial production, for example, increased by 30 % between 1953 and 1958 (Dietz and Kaczmarczyk 2008). As a result, the need for adequate integration policies became apparent, and such policies slowly started to develop (see Doomernik and Bruquetas in this volume). The United States began regulating immigration soon after it won independence from Great Britain, and the laws since enacted have reflected the politics and migrant flows of the times. As a result, North-Western European governments started to recruit labour in peripheral countries. Castles, S., Booth, H., & Wallace, T. (1984). In this chapter we outline the general developments of migration within and towards Europe as well as patterns of settlement of migrants. The UK Government's proposals on immigration are set out in the December 2018 White Paper on The UK 's Future Skills-Based Immigration System , which draws on prior recommendations from the Migration Advisory Committee ( MAC ). European governments became aware that migrant populations were likely to remain on their territory, and they slowly began to develop integration policies. The relations between the countries were poor. Welcome to the EU Immigration Portal. But it was also the result of a larger extent of return migration among Southern European populations, given the increased quality of life and employment opportunities in Southern Europe (Barou 2006). In West Germany, for example, there was a significant inflow of workers from Greece, Italy, and Spain, as well as from East Germany. Poulain, M., Perrin, N., & Singleton, A. Nekby, L. (2006). ©Prospect Magazine, June 2000 / OECD Observer No 221-222, Summer 2000 The vast majority who came after the fall of the Iron Curtain originated from the former Soviet Union (Dietz 2006; Münz and Ulrich 1998). pp 31-55 | The main destination countries were Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland. 1. A similar rise is also observed in the UK, where numbers increased from 1000 to 3000 (ibid.). Many migrants started to bring their families to Europe. Others followed: Germany in 1973 and the Benelux and France in 1974. Münz, R., & Ulrich, R. (1998). Life paths of Polish migrants in the Netherlands: Timing and sequencing of events. The UK's departure from the EU will usher in important changes to immigration policy. Peripheral countries have been hit particularly hard by the crisis, and an increasing tendency towards emigration can be observed from countries such as Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. In this context, several European countries, such as France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK simplified procedures for international students to make the education-to-work transition (Tremblay 2005; Van Mol 2014). 2014). 1998). Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 202-266-1940 | fax. Intra-EU migration forms a substantial share of movements to and from the majority of the countries in Fig. De Valk, H. A. G., & Díez Medrano, J. Boston is one of the most extreme examples in Britain of a town affected by recent EU immigration. Previous studies indicate that only a small share of the European population is mobile (Bonin et al. Many fail to realize this but Germany’s attitude to immigration has changed for the better because it has been pushed to do so by the EU. Castles, S., De Haas, H., & Miller, M. J. Hatton, T. (2004). This allows us to distinguish between different origins of migrants as well as migration motives. Mobility within Europe, in this regard, cannot be seen as separate from migration from outside the EU. The fight against pollution intensifies in the 1970s. The number of foreign residents kept rising, due to a change in European migration systems from circular to chain migration and the related natural growth of migrant populations. They therefore tended to be granted few rights and little or no access to welfare support (Boyle et al. Immigration of non-EU migrants, however, seems less affected. Immigration in Switzerland: A Historical Overview The history of immigration in Switzerland is closely related to the country’s economic development, and the proportion of foreigners has greatly varied over time, depending on the country’s ups and downs. Top-ten intra-European migration flows, 2000–2011 (absolute numbers). In C. Bonifazi, M. Okólski, J. Schoorl, & P. Simon (Eds.). The increased co-operation within the European Union and the Council of Europe on matters related to immigration and asylum requires the publication of theoretical and empirical research. Deciding to move: Migration projects in an integrating Europe. The composition of the residing migrant population also changed during this period. Many of these (return) migrants were juridically considered citizens; estimates suggest that between 1940 and 1975 the number of people of European origin returning from the colonies was around 7 million (Bade 2003). In addition to migration from outside Europe this chapter pays ample attention to patterns of mobility within Europe. Migration flows were strongly guided by differences in economic development between regions characterized by pre-industrial agrarian economies and those with highly industrialized economies (Bade 2003; Barou 2006), both internationally and nationally (e.g., with unskilled workers moving from Southern Italy towards the industrial centres in Northern Italy). Levrau, F., Piqueray, E., Goddeeris, I., & Timmerman, C. (2014). Full Bio >, Elizabeth Collett was Director of Migration Policy Institute Europe and Senior Advisor to MPI's Transatlantic Council on Migration. 1. Half of them returned in the period after the oil crisis (ibid.). Estimates of the numbers of individuals that left Italy, Spain, Greece, and Portugal between 1950 and 1970 vary from 7 to 10 million (Okólski, In this same phase, numbers of asylum applications started to rise in Europe (especially in the 1980s and after the fall of the Berlin Wall; Hansen, The 1992 Maastricht Treaty’s abolition of borders considerably eased intra-EU movements (see also next sections of this chapter). Ryan, L., & Mulholland, J. Data from the OECD (, It is important to keep in mind that most of the previous analyses are based on absolute numbers, whereby EU member states with larger populations are logically more visible. 2014; Fassmann and Münz 1992, 1994). This article analyses the unique features of M. Thatcher’s government approach in the area of national legislation aimed at reduction of colour immigration from former British colonies to the UK in view of the EU general requirements on ‘open-door’ policy development for the member-states. 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